Tuesday, June 30, 2009

answer to quiz

1. Adrenal glands are also called suprarenal because they are situated above the kidney

2.Adrenal Cortex that produces hormones that are important in the body.
3.Adrenal Medulla that produces Emergency hormones

4.Zona Glomerulosa
5. Zona Fasciculata
6. Zona Reticularis

7. Adrenal Medulla

8. Chromaffin cells

9. Zona Glomerulosa

10. Zona Fasciculata


1. What could be the doctor’s diagnosis of Tony’s condition?

The patient has hypertension and hypokalemia can be diagnosed to have hyperaldosteronism

2. What could account for Tony’s complaints

The patients headaches, dizziness, restlessness, and nervousness are probably due to hypertension, while the palpitation, fatigue and polyuria are due to hypokalemia

3.What other diseases could have triggered the condition of Tony?

picture by: http://www.youthchg.com/bulb3.jpg

Tuesday, June 16, 2009


1. Why are adrenal glands also called as supra renal glands?

2-3. What are the two useful parts of the adrenal glands?

4-6. 3 Functional parts lying at the margin of the Adrenal Gland

7. Is a modified sympathetic ganglion of the Autonomic Nervous System

8. cells that secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine

9. Zone responsible for the production of mineralocorticoid

10. Zone responsible for the production of glucocorticoid


Tony a school bus driver went home from work complaining of dizziness, restlessness, and headache, so he went to see his doctor for check-up.

He also informed his doctor that he easily gets tired and had frequent palpitations or increased ventricular ectopy and polyuria. The doctor had ordered different tests and when the laboratory tests were done, the doctor noticed that Tony’s laboratory tests showed significant metabolic alkalosis and hypokalemia.

1. What could be the doctor’s diagnosis of Tony’s condition?

2. What could account for Tony’s complaints?

3. What other diseases could have triggered the condition of Tony?

Picpicture by: www.kennardconsulting.com

Tuesday, June 2, 2009

Clincal Chemistry Blog Notes 25


The Adrenal Gland is a part of the Endocrine system that produces hormones in the fluid surrounding the secretory cells. The Endocrine system is made up of the Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Pineal and the Adrenal glands, but there are also different organs and tissues that possess the functions of the different glands of the Endocrine system, some of them are the liver, skin, small intestine, heart, pancreas, ovaries, kidneys, testes, stomach, adipose tissue, hypothalamus, thymus and the placenta. Hormones are important because they normalize the different cells in the body, thus producing the normal functioning of the body.

The Adrenal glands are also called as Suprarenal Glands because they lie above the kidneys and has a trodden pyramidal figure. "In adults, each adrenal gland is about 3-5 cm in height and 2-3 cm in width, and a little less than 1 cm thick",as stated in book of authors Gerard J. Tortora and Sandra Reynolds Grabowski, Principles of Anatomy and Physiology 10th ed. The adrenal glands are separated into two useful parts; the adrenal cortex which is located at the edge or the margin of the adrenal gland, and the adrenal medulla which is found at the interior part of the gland. Like most glands, the adrenal gland is also rich in blood vessels.

The Adrenal Cortex is divided into regions/zones that secrete their own hormone that have their own essential function. The outmost region is the zona glomerulosa it is located below the connective tissue covering, it has cells that are set in round huddles and domed columns that produce hormones called Mineralocorticoids that influences mineral hemostasis. The spacious of the three zones is the zona fasciculata; it is located at the center of the adrenal cortex and has cells arranged in long, straight columns that produce the hormone glucocorticoid responsible in glucose hemostasis. The innermost of the zone, zona reticularis has cells arranged in bough strings; these produce minute quantity of feeble androgens that have muscularizing end products.

The Adrenal Medulla on the other hand is a modified sympathetic ganglion of the autonomic nervous system (Tortora et.al), it also secretes hormones through the chromaffin cells, epinephrine and norepinephrine are the two hormones produced by the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, and they act on the autonomic nervous system during cases of stress.

Like other glands of the body, the adrenal gland is important for it aids in the normal functioning of some parts of the body, that when the supply of hormones are insufficient could be fatal to the person. Bottom line is, the Adrenal glands are not so famous as other organs are, but the adrenal glands are also one of the most important parts that we have to consider.

Gerard J. Tortora and Sandra Reynolds Grabowski, Principles of Anatomy and Physiology 10th edition